How government works

In the UK, the Prime Minister leads the government with the support of the Cabinet and ministers. You can find out who runs government and how government is run, as well as learning about the history of government.

Who runs government

The Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is the leader of Her Majesty’s Government and is ultimately responsible for all policy and decisions.

The Prime Minister also:

  • oversees the operation of the Civil Service and government agencies
  • appoints members of the government
  • is the principal government figure in the House of Commons

The Prime Minister is The Rt Hon Boris Johnson MP.

Read more about the Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street

The Cabinet

The Cabinet is made up of the senior members of government. Every week during Parliament, members of the Cabinet (Secretaries of State from all departments and some other ministers) meet to discuss the most important issues for the government.

See who is in the Cabinet


Ministers are chosen by the Prime Minister from the members of the House of Commons and House of Lords. They are responsible for the actions, successes and failures of their departments.

See full list of ministers

How government is run

Departments and their agencies are responsible for putting government policy into practice.

The Civil Service does the practical and administrative work of government. It is co-ordinated and managed by the Prime Minister, in their role as Minister for the Civil Service.

Around half of all civil servants provide services direct to the public, including:

  • paying benefits and pensions
  • running employment services
  • staffing prisons
  • issuing driving licences

The Civil Service is on GOV.UK.

Read about ways to get involved.

Laws go through several stages before they are passed by Parliament. The House of Commons and the House of Lords work together to make them.

They can include:

History of government

Britain has one of the oldest governments in the world. Find out more about how it has worked and who has shaped it in the history section.

Read about past Prime Ministers, Chancellors and Foreign Secretaries in notable people. Learn more about historic government buildings on Whitehall and around the UK.

You can also find links to historical research, documents and records.