Income Distribution and Effective Demand in the Indian Economy
Zico Dasgupta, July, 2020
Does there exist a trade-off between labour’s income share and
output growth rate? Or does a reduction in wage share in itself reduces the
output growth rate? These questions have returned to the centre stage in the midst of India’s
present crisis as the government sought the dilution and suspension of labour laws as a counter-cyclical
policy instrument. In the absence of any other stimulus or countervailing factors, the impact of such a
policy would hinge on the relationship between income distribution and effective demand. This paper
attempts to lay bare this relationship for the Indian economy through an empirical analysis of India’s
macro data and a theoretical model on the basis of regression results.
Download the file here.
What Explains India’s High Growth Phase? Investment, Exports and Growth During the Liberalization Period
Zico Dasgupta, January, 2020
The Indian economy embarked upon a higher growth trajectory during the
period of economic liberalization particularly due to high growth rate of output and investments
during the 2000s as compared to the earlier period. But was it on account of implementation of
liberalization policies per se, or was it primarily on account of factors which were exogenous to
domestic policies? This paper argues the latter and attempts to provide an explanation of India’s
growth story from the demand-side framework by highlighting its external dependence for keeping up
the growth rate. Despite deterioration in net exports, it is argued that it was primarily the exogenous
changes in the level and pattern of global demand which led to an increase in India’s corporate
investments and output during the relevant period. One key conclusion which can be drawn from this
analysis is that the objective of attaining high domestic output growth rate cannot be met in the
present situation of weak global demand simply by repeating the strategies that were once implemented
during the high growth phase.
Download the file here.
'From ‘Servant’ to ‘Worker’: The ‘Formalization’ of Domestic Work in Bangalore'
The focus of the research is the work and lives of ‘Domestic workers’
(henceforth, DW) in Bangalore, especially their struggles to form collectives as part of their
attempt to transform their subjectivities from ‘servant’ to ‘worker’, and improve their life and
work situations. Domestic work is precarious work constituting a large part of India’s informal
economy. It exists within a political economic context signaled by rising incomes of urban middle
and upper classes and the existence of a steady supply of working-class women (from mostly stigmatized castes
but across all religions) ready for domestic work. It is also enabled by a cultural-ideological
context signaled by the preference to engage DWs as a normalized cultural marker for upward mobility.
Our research demonstrates the struggles of DWs, the dilemmas and obstacles they negotiate for their
empowerment. It focuses on the collective actions of DWs in their workplaces, their families and
neighborhoods, and within unions and labour-NGOs engaged in organizing DWs for “formalization” of
work, demands for a ‘decent’ wage and work conditions,
and innovations in the form and content of their collective rights.
Domestic Work is Work: an illustrated booklet
A summary of our research can be found in the form three main demands as illustrated in
the 4-page pamphlet. Download the file here.
Domestic Work is Work: an interactive session
On International Domestic Workers' Day (16th June, 2020), Rajesh Joseph was joined by Geetha Menon (Stree Jagruti Samiti), Usha Ravikumar (FEDINA), and Balmurli Natarajan (Visiting Faculty, Azim Premji University) to discuss various issues regarding domestic workers' rights and dignity of labour.
Watch the video here.
Farmer Producer Companies – Past Present and Future
This report on Farmer Producer Companies is based on a two year research study which (i) analyses their characteristics,
(ii) investigates their strategic challenges, capitalisation, regulation, long-term potential
etc., and (iii) recommends possible strategies for improving their viability.
Producer Companies combine the principles of collective action with the structural
benefits of a company. Over the last 17 years, thousands of producer companies have
been promoted in India in the belief that they would enable small producers to pool
their resources and establish successful businesses which would improve their incomes
and reduce risks in the long run. This study identifies certain normative, strategic
and regulatory challenges which may limit their chances of success and recommends a
possible path forward, to enable practitioners and policy-makers to improve the viability
of such companies in the long-run. Download the full report here
Politics and Society between Elections – 2017 & 18
The problems of India’s development and governance are routinely linked to the logic of India’s electoral democracy. As a result, a great deal is known about elections, but paradoxically our knowledge of
politics and society between elections is relatively underdeveloped. As much as anything else, development and governance outcomes are shaped by how the government functions between elections:
including, how it relates to citizens on a regular basis; how it provides routine public services to them; and how public order is maintained. Further, governance process are nested in the social and political
relationships between citizens inter se and with government functionaries.
The Azim Premji University and Lok Niti will conduct three annual surveys titled ‘Politics and Society between Elections’ across 24 States and Union Territories.
Please find below the Reports from the first two surveys conducted in 2017 & 2018. Please click here to down load the reports
Karnataka Crime Victimisation Survey: 2019
The Karnataka Crime Victimisation Survey report is being brought out by the Centre for Constitutional and Legal System Reform (CLS) at Azim Premji University. The report is based on the findings of a crime victimisation survey undertaken by Azim Premji University with the assistance of independent field investigators in 2017. The main objective of the survey was to understand the scope and nature of crime in the state and to analyse the extent to which the National Crime Records Bureau records capture the rate of crime in Karnataka. The report will be released at the end of August 2019.
Please click here to download the scope of the report and the survey questionnaire.
State of Working India
The State of Working India (SWI) brought out by the Centre for Sustainable Employment (CSE) at Azim Premji University is envisioned as a regular publication that delivers well-researched, analytically useful information on India’s labour market, by bringing together researchers, journalists, civil society activists, and policymakers interested in labour and employment issues.
The report is based on the research of CSE staff, as well as on background papers which are available online. SWI conceives of India’s ongoing structural transformation
as composed of two processes - movement of workers from agriculture to non-farm occupations (the Kuznets process) and from informal activities to formal ones (the Lewis process). But it adds crucial considerations of social equity and ecological sustainability to this standard framework.
To download the report please click here
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